Toyota Series - Electrical
01 Electrical Fundamentals with questions.pdf file size 401KB
02 Electrical Circuits with questions.pdf file size 319KB
03 Electrical Components with questions.pdf file size 517KB
04 Analog vs Digital Meters with questions.pdf file size 35KB
05 Wire, Terminal and Connector Repair w/qu.pdf file size 270KB
06 Automotive Batteries with questions.pdf file size 741MB
07 Toyota Starting Systems with questions.pdf file size 870KB
08 Toyota Charging Systems with questions.pdf file size 850KB
09 Understanding Toyota Wiring Diagram.pdf file size 1.9MB
10 Electrical Diagnostic Tools.pdf file size 784KB
11 Diagnosing Body Electrical Problems.pdf file size 1.31MB
12 Semiconductors with questions.pdf file size 216KB
13 Transistors with questions.pdf file size 42KB
14 Computers / Logic Gates with questions.pdf file size 205KB
15 Overview of Sensors & Actuators w/quest.pdf file size 287KB
16 Electronic Transmission #1 - Operation.pdf file size 574KB
17 Electronic Transmission #2 - Diagnosis w/quest.pdf file size 287KB
18 Shift Interlock System.pdf 241KB
Thursday, July 11, 2013
|Use Your Eyes & Ears to Inspect Your Brakes|
Visually inspect your brakes' condition at least every six months. Here are some things to look for:
Brake Rotors (discs) should be inspected all the way around the surface and on both sides for any concentric scoring (grooves) or obvious defects. If defects are found, replace your rotors immediately. Any rotor discoloration may be a sign of overheating and an inspection by a brake repair professional is needed.
Brake Pads will normally match rotor scoring but should also be inspected for uneven wear, breakage or cracking on the friction surface. Again, if defects are found, replace the pads immediately. Many cars also have brake pad sensors to warn of pad wear. If your car uses sensors, replace these at the same time as your pads.
Brake Drums (if equipped) should also be inspected on a regular basis. Check for the same types of flaws as noted above. The drums should not have excessive grooves or have a deep "trough" dug into them where the shoes ride.
Brake Shoes (if equipped) should be worn evenly and have no rivets protruding to the friction surface.
Cooling systems can be your best friend when operating efficiently. Cooling system repairs . . . your worst enemy if you don't understand how your cooling system works.
Your cooling system performs a critical function. Simply put, it maintains proper engine temperature by circulating coolant through the engine to pick up heat and passing it through a radiator to cool it with air. The coolant passes through a thermostat valve to control flow and possibly over a temperature sensor which controls external air cooling fans.
Cooling systems consist of three main parts:
|The electric fuel pump is the heart of every electronic fuel injection system. Let's review the basics of this critical fuel injection part.|
Usually located inside or near the fuel tank, the fuel pump's job is twofold:
1) To push fuel from the tank to the injectors, and
2) To create sufficient pressure so the injectors will deliver the correct amount of fuel under all operating conditions.
The pressure developed by the pump, as well as the volume of fuel it flows, must both meet the vehicle manufacturers' requirements or engine performance, economy and emissions will suffer.
The amount of fuel pressure required for a given application will vary depending on the type of injection system (L-Jetronic, CIS, Motronic, etc.), the flow characteristics of the injectors and the engine's fuel requirements.
For example, certain Audi models with Bosch Motronic require 55 to 61 psi (3.8 to 4.2 BAR) of static pressure measured with the engine off. By comparison, a BMW may require 43 psi (3.0 BAR) on some models or 48 psi (3.3 BAR) on others. The differences may not seem like much, but a few pounds of fuel pressure can have a significant impact on engine performance and emissions.
Oil pressure light flickering? Engine knock? Both? Major repair problem or minor annoyance? Either way, you should always quickly investigate the source before it becomes an even bigger problem.
Oil pressure - or more precisely the lack of it - in certain parts of your car's engine can become a major repair nightmare. All engines lose a certain amount of oil pressure over time as normal wear increases bearing clearances. But unusually low oil pressure in an engine, regardless of mileage, is often an indication that something is seriously wrong and requires immediate repairs.
That "tappet" noise may be only one sticking lifter but it may also indicate an oil flow problem that will eventually cause damage to at least one valve.
A flickering oil light is more difficult to troubleshoot if your engine is not obviously in need of major repair work.
Modern engines with hydraulic lifters, tight tolerance bearings and miniature oil filters require conscientious monitoring of oil pressure.
The following diagnostic tips (excerpted from "Troubleshooting Low Oil Pressure", Underhood Service, 10/97) will help you determine whether you have a major repair problem or just a minor annoyance.
|Tuneup - an old-fashioned maintenance term that's nearly non-existent today. With electronic ignition and fuel injection came computers that took over control of engine settings. Early versions allowed for some tinkering, but today's engines require advanced equipment and training.|
You can, however, replace normal maintenance parts and still see improved engine performance. Here are common maintenance parts you can replace to significantly increase performance and reduce major problems:
Basic Ignition Parts
Spark Plugs: Spark plugs are good indicators of engine condition. Removing and inspecting spark plugs tell you a lot about how well the engine is running and what may be causing problems.
All spark plugs should be removed and checked every 30,000 miles - even if your car is "low maintenance" - you're told to change spark plugs at 100,000 miles. This prevents the plugs from seizing in the block, causing expensive repairs down the road.
Always note which plug came from which cylinder. This tells you if a particular cylinder has a problem. BEWARE: New spark plugs can make a difference in your car's performance but only if replaced with the appropriate OE replacement plug.
DESCRIPTION The differential assembly is of hypoid design with centerline of drive pinion gear set below centerline of ring gear. A collapsi...
DESCRIPTION Brake system is hyrdraulically operated, using a tandem master cylinder and a Master-Voc power brake unit. Front brakes are Girl...
For Models: 521 Pickup (1969-72) 620 Pickup (1973) DESCRIPTION Brake system is hydraulically operated, using a tandem master cylinder a...
1973 VOLKSWAGEN SPECIFICATIONS AND ADJUSTMENTS TIRE INFLATION (COLD) Before attempting to check or adjust wheel alignment, make sure tires...
DESCRIPTION Brake system is hydraulically operated using a tandem master cylinder and a power brake unit. Front disc brakes consist of rotor...
1962-72 JAGUAR SPECIFICATIONS AND ADJUSTMENTS TIRE INFLATION (COLD) Before attempting to check or adjust wheel alignment, ensure tires are...
DESCRIPTION Front brakes are either disc or drum type. All models use drum brakes on rear. Master cylinder is tandem piston type. All models...
1962-72 MERCEDES BENZ SPECIFICATIONS AND ADJUSTMENTS TIRE INFLATION (COLD) Before attempting to check or adjust wheel alignment, ensure th...
DESCRIPTION Brake system is hydraulically operated, using a tandem master cylinder and a Master-Vac power brake unit. Front brakes are Girli...
DESCRIPTION The axle assembly is hypoid gear type with a separate carrier housing. It comes in slightly different models for use in all T...